For lovers of light and natural aromas, myrtle is best suited: it helps to improve the air in the room, to establish the atmosphere, and its leaves are used as a medicine. It is also grown to create a bonsai-style tree. And among the variety of varieties, you can choose suitable for both beginners and experienced florists: leaving is not difficult, but you should still remember some features.
Myrtle is native to the Mediterranean, but it also grows in North Africa (in Europe, it freezes after the first frost). Depending on the variety, the thermophilic plant in the form of an evergreen shrub in these parts reaches a height of 3.5 m, due to which it is grown as a garden crop in tubs or in the open field. The bush is even pruned to give the crown the desired shape.
The leaves contain an aromatic substance: its scent is clearly audible if rubbed or cut at the place where the veins are located. Latin myrtus myrtle, a southern evergreen plant containing essential oil in its leaves, is derived from the Greek μυρρα myrrh, a liquid incense.
A bright representative of the family is common myrtle. It is a shrub up to 2 m high with dark green leathery leaves and small white or pink fragrant flowers. The fruits are edible black berries on which the calyx of the flower is attached.
After flowering, dark fruits of a round or elliptical shape with seeds are formed on the myrtle.
There are many varieties of plants in the myrtle family. Interestingly, eucalyptus is also included in it. However, only a few varieties are suitable for the home. Caring for them is simple, but they need to create acceptable conditions, for example, high humidity, ventilation and regular watering.
Despite the modest variety of suitable varieties, the choice of myrtle for the home is nevertheless even more limited due to the supply. The optimal way out is not buying in stores, but growing cuttings from plants that have taken root with friends. If there is a choice, then it is better to pay attention to the varieties described below. They differ in the shape and size of leaves, flower, fruit, and are also considered the most unpretentious and compact varieties:
It is noteworthy that all of the listed varieties belong to the common myrtle species.
According to experts, any variety of common myrtle is suitable for bonsai.
Myrtle lends itself well to forming, so it is relatively easy to grow it in the bonsai style.
But the most original trees will come from the Boethica and dwarf Microfilla varieties: it is convenient to form their crown and trunk because of the slow growth and pliability of the shoots.
It is best to transplant an adult myrtle once every 3-4 years, and young plants are transplanted annually in the spring. When transplanting myrtle, it is impossible to deepen the root collar of the plant: this can lead to various diseases or to rot damage. At the bottom of the pot, be sure to lay out a good layer of drainage.
General rules for transplanting myrtle:
If the above rules apply to both adults and the younger generation, then the requirements below are only suitable for a tree over 3 years old:
Young myrtle trees are transplanted in the same way, but leaving more land on the roots and choosing soil with a different composition: a mixture of peat and coarse sand
For adult plants, obtain a slightly acidic ready-made soil or mix:
Expanded clay is usually used as drainage, but perlite is considered more effective, which can be mixed into the ground. Before use, the soil is sterilized and treated with fungicidal substances to avoid fungal infections.
Caring for myrtle differs little from the standard. It is important to remember that he loves warmth during periods of activity, moisture and fresh air.
When the myrtle grows, blooms, then it is abundantly watered with settled water at room temperature. Chlorine is detrimental to delicate roots, even a short contact with it will lead to sad consequences. The frequency of watering depends on many factors, but the need for it is determined by the condition of the soil: it is not allowed to dry completely. However, excessive watering guarantees soil acidification, rotting of the roots: the tree will shed its leaves and stop developing.
Spraying (or periodic shower) will help to cope with drooping leaves, return them elasticity and bright color. And also these procedures are the prevention of many diseases and the appearance of pests. Myrtle is sprayed during the period of activity every day or several times a day. To facilitate maintenance and to ensure a suitable air humidity, which should be high, a humidifier is placed in the room or expanded clay is placed in a tray from a pot and poured over it with water. Spraying gives a short-term improvement in conditions: as soon as moisture evaporates from the leaves, the myrtle will feel its lack.
The room in which the myrtle grows is regularly ventilated, taking the plant itself to another room, where it will be protected from hypothermia.
This plant needs fresh air, but it is afraid of drafts and extreme cold.
Myrtle grows in direct sunlight. However, in the midday heat in the warm season, he is provided with protection, especially when he is on an open balcony.
Fertilizers help the tree grow, but they are used with caution. If you add a little humus when transplanting into the soil, then until summer you can forget about the ready-made compositions. In other cases, myrtle is fed with complex fertilizers in the spring, and after the beginning of flowering and until its end with nitrogen fertilizers. This plant also accepts top dressing of roots or leaves in the form of spraying.
Myrtle usually blooms in late spring or early summer. This period lasts about 2 months. With its beginning, the volume of irrigation and the frequency of spraying are increased.
For fruits to appear, insects are needed, however, at home, pollination in this way is almost impossible., So this is done manually with a brush
With active pruning and crown formation, the myrtle stem does not bloom. If the appearance of the crown does not bother, then this process can be accelerated and intensified: then they stop pruning and apply nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.
For intensive flowering, myrtle is planted in a cramped pot so that it does not waste energy on the growth of shoots and the development of the root system.
Myrth needs a dormant period in winter to gain strength for the next season of explosive growth and intense flowering. If in summer and warm spring the best place for him is a balcony, a loggia, a garden in the fresh air, then in winter an adult plant feels better at a temperature of 6-12aboutWith and without additional lighting. If the myrtle is left to winter in a warm room with normal lighting, then it is regularly sprayed, but watering is still reduced.
During the dormant period, which lasts from December to the end of February, watering is significantly reduced to 1-2 times a month and any additional feeding is excluded. For the dormant period, the plant is prepared gradually: in advance, they begin to reduce the temperature in the room and reduce the volume and frequency of watering.
But these rules do not apply to plants that are less than 3 years old: in winter they are in a warm and well-lit room with additional lighting.
To make the shape of the myrtle beautiful, it is periodically pruned. The procedure and methods for forming a stem or crown depend on the variety, but this is always done in early spring or after flowering ends.
In the summer, it is permissible to remove a few extra branches. If you do not trim the crown of the myrtle, then it acquires a pyramidal shape.
Shoots can be bent and tied, entangling with soft wire, but with care
Pinching is relevant in spring and in young plants during the period of activity. This will make the crown wider, so it is better to cut young branches short enough.
Many people are fond of this extraordinary activity, and myrtle is perfect for the formation of bonsai. It is advisable to choose slow-growing and dwarf varieties (for example, Boethica or Microfilla). To form the crown, they regularly pinch the upper leaves, cut off unnecessary branches, preventing flowering. It is then that the crown will be lush and thick, and its shape will be compact and correspond to the given one.
So, Boethica's trunk can be directed in different directions: it is pliable, but you should not pinch it, because there will be creases
The myrtle bonsai pot should be flat and wide, with low walls. To avoid drying out the soil and add decorativeness, moss is placed on the topsoil or mulched.
Inconsistency of the pot can create obstacles to the normal functioning of the root system, which will lead to the early death of the tree.
And also, in the form of a tree, you can grow a durant, read about it: https://diz-cafe.com/rastenija/duranta-kak-vyrastit-nebesnyj-cvetok.html
When growing myrtle, various problems arise, often associated with improper plant maintenance. Below are the most common causes of your plant's unhealthy appearance.
Often you have to resort to emergency resuscitation of a plant (in particular, a dried one):
When the myrtle recovers, the film must be removed. Next, you should review the terms of his detention.
Myrtle becomes vulnerable to pests when the conditions of detention are violated.
Myrtle is propagated mainly by cuttings; reproduction by seeds is undesirable: plants lose varietal characteristics (crushing of leaves and flowers). In addition, cuttings are a more reliable method: seeds lose their ability to germinate very quickly.
Reproduction by cuttings should be carried out no more than twice a year: first in winter (in January-February), and then you should focus on spring or mid-summer (July). For quick rooting, you can use stimulants.
To prevent moisture evaporation, the leaves are removed from the lower part of the cutting, and the remaining ones are shortened.
Reproduction stages by cuttings:
Pruning cuttings. Their length should be about 5–8 cm. For reproduction, take matured semi-lignified cuttings.
Cuttings should be taken from the middle of the tree.
Soil preparation: peat is mixed in half with sand or perlite (vermiculite).
If the choice is between vermiculite and perlite, give preference to the first one: it does not produce dust and has useful elements for plant nutrition.
Cuttings are planted in a small pot (plastic cups are also suitable) with prepared soil.
Plant the cuttings to a depth of 2.5–3 cm, remembering to compact the soil at the base
Also use cups for single plantings instead of film.
Soil for rooted myrtle sprouts is prepared from a mixture of peat (70%) with perlite or vermiculite (30%)
As a rule, plants grown from cuttings bloom only in the second or third year.
The myrtle tree obtained from seeds will delight you with flowers no earlier than in 4 years.
In addition, it should be borne in mind that seeds have a tendency to decrease germination after one year of storage.
How to grow myrtle from seeds:
Most varieties of myrtle have small seeds, in one fruit there can be up to 15 of them.
About 7-10 days after planting, the first shoots of myrtle appear
Myrtle grown from seed grows slowly.
Few people stratify plant seeds, although this is often required. So what is this beast?
Stratification is the preparation of a plant embryo for future germination without loss: keeping the plant in a humid environment at a low temperature and then planting it in a relatively warm soil. Without pre-cooling, the seed can simply rot in the ground.
Typically, this seed preparation is carried out as follows:
To increase efficiency, Zircon (1 drop per 300 ml of water) is added to the water for primary soaking. This solution must be infused for at least 16 hours. It is suitable for use only for 3 days at an air temperature of 18-25aboutFROM.
Before soaking the seeds, the container with the Zircon solution is shaken.
Often, when growing plants from seeds, a number of questions arise from the category of what to do if:
For example, the seeds may not germinate for several reasons: unviable old seed, excessively deep sowing, cold soil saturated with moisture, etc. If in the first case you are absolutely helpless, then the second and third are the work of your hands: take into account the specifics of planting myrtle seeds and do not forget to drain and ventilate the greenhouse.
If mold has formed under the glass, then immediately take action:
Possibly, acidified soil aggravates the situation. Then chalk is added to the soil at the rate of about 50 g per 1 kg of land (it can also be replaced with wood ash in the same proportions).
In any case, try to adhere to the care recommendations in order to avoid problematic what to do in the future.
Exported to Europe several centuries ago, myrtle has taken root well in homes and feels great. Today there are about a hundred species of myrtle tree, of which common myrtle and all its varieties are suitable for growing at home. In order for beautiful plants with such an amazing and rich history to please the eye, a little attention should be paid to them: simple care with abundant watering.
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The genus myrtle (Myrtus) is a member of the Myrtle family and unites approximately 20 to 40 species. In the wild, myrtle can be found on almost all continents, namely: in the USA in the state of Florida, in Europe off the Mediterranean coast, in West Africa and in North America. This genus is represented by low evergreen trees or shrubs. Solid opposite leaf plates leathery to the touch. The flowers grow from the axils of the leaves, they are collected in short racemose inflorescences, they can be part of the bundles or grow alone. Such a plant is very popular among flower growers, and it is also used in medicine and perfumery - essential oil is extracted from stems and foliage. If you take care of myrtle correctly, it will grow for a very long time at home. It is also interesting that the culture has a phytoncidal effect.
In room conditions, they contain the following types of myrtle. Photo below.
It has a short trunk covered with scaly, flaking bark. Brilliantly the leaves are located opposite each other. The flowers are white with long yellow stamens protruding beyond the corolla.
At home, both a botanical species and varieties of common myrtle are grown.
The following varieties are most often found.
A low-growing variety, distinguished by its dwarf size and abundant flowering.
Differs in the color of the leaves, they are variegated, green-white.
This species is represented by slowly growing trees, reaching 10 - 20 meters in height. The trunks are twisted, with smooth bark. Chilean myrtle berries are edible and have medicinal properties, due to which they are used in medicine.
Dwarf forms are grown as houseplants.
Variegated form of Chilean myrtle. Small in size.
When buying myrtle, you need to understand that the plant has a pronounced dormant period. This means that you need to look after in summer and winter differently. Because of this feature, myrtle can be found in different places depending on the temperature in the house and the time of year. The most favorable time for a plant is summer. Myrtle is very fond of fresh air, so the plant can even be dug into the ground with the pot, for example, in the garden. Before digging in, you need to think and decide on the place where it will grow.
Myrtle is in great demand among flower lovers. But quite often, when growing at home, various problems occur. For example, a plant sheds its leaves. This may be due to incorrect content. Caring for indoor myrtle is quite simple, but still has its own nuances.
I planted 2 and 3 cuttings at once in larger pots. Previously, I had a bad experience of planting one by one in pots with a diameter of 5 cm. Myrtle, even a small one, drinks quite a lot of water, and in a small pot the earth dries out in literally half a day, and he cannot stand overdrying. Therefore, I believe that it is safer to use a spacious dish, in which the soil will be guaranteed to remain moist, having a rapid growth, one or several small myrtles in a month or two will fill this entire volume with roots.
My myrtle was bought last summer with a height of 10-15 cm. In a year it has grown by half a meter. In the hottest summer months, I remove it from the sunny loggia, and in the fall I take it to the glazed loggia and there he lives with me until the temperature drops + 6 + 8 degrees. And then I take it to the apartment. I endured winter in a warm heated room normally. Sometimes it twists and throws off the leaves - I immediately process it from the tick.
I completely agree that myrtle loves a cool winter. And he also loves constantly wet ground. In the summer I water every other day, and in the heat and every day. In winter, twice a week. I give top dressing from spring to autumn, any complex will do. The beneficial properties of myrtle are well known. Its leaves secrete phytoncides, spicy oils that kill disease-causing bacteria. I know that the experiment was carried out by one of the scientific centers in Russia. The hospital measured the level of air pollution by various pathogenic bacteria. Then many myrtle bushes were placed there. and measured after a while. The results were shocking! The air has become much cleaner. Based on this, the conclusion: if you put several plants around the house, this family will get sick less often. There is also advice, to put the myrtle plant near the patient's bed. Also, the leaves of myrtle can be brewed, gargled with this. The result is even steeper if you rinse your head with this solution. Here they poured a few leaves with boiling water in a cup 15–20 minutes before washing the head. We washed our head and pour it over with a decoction of myrtle, no need to rinse it off. So there are several procedures. When I bring myrtle into the house in the fall, it sprinkles the foliage a little, and collect it. It has also been noticed that if you throw a couple of leaves into the water for rooting, it also acts as an antiseptic.
I want to share with you the conditions for growing myrtle by my own example. It grows in my 3 liter pot on the east window. I water it when the top layer of the earth dries out properly. Very often I spray, once a month a warm shower. Lighting: natural in summer, supplementary lighting in winter (at least 12 hours) Fertilize from March to October twice a month. On the 1st of Kemir lux, on the 15th with horse manure slurry (1:15) In order to prevent ticks in the fall and spring, I treat it with phytoverm. That's all!
Mirtu recommend slightly acidic soil Ph 6–6.5, all universal purchased soils have such acidity. The main thing is that the soil is loose, it allows water to pass through well. The water must not stagnate. Good drainage is imperative to the bottom. Water for irrigation and spraying must be defended, if it is very hard, then it can be acidified. I spray often.
Gave my sister myrtle 10 years ago. A huge bush, a meter high, has grown and has long been considered a full member of the family, although her husband grumbles that he takes up too much space, no thought has arisen to get rid of him. Maybe the secret is simple - myrtle grows only in a prosperous family, where love and respect reign, well, and where they do not forget to water.
I love my myrtle. I don’t know what grade. I have a broad-leaved one. Very tenacious. Blooms in full in summer. I carried pollen with a brush. There was a lot of fruit. Some of the fruits have sprouted. I left one sprout. But his leaves were different. Narrower and denser on the branch. The elder myrtle in the summer stretched out to the very ceiling, although it was specially kept in a very small pot. I had to cut it. is now growing in the kitchen.
My little myrtle seedlings did not die. The sprouts of about 5 cm were lost. 2 myrtiks died from the fact that they did not watered them during the time. It was winter, and the battery drained them quickly. And there were no more problems with them. They were not sick with anything, no one ate them from pests. Blossoming was 2 times, though not plentiful. The berries did not form, but I did not know that they needed to be pollinated with a brush. When the myrtle just stands, I do not smell, but as soon as I run my hands over the foliage, a spicy aroma immediately appears. I really like it, it reminds me of the smell of lemon. And my brother says he smells like pine needles. Laurel reminds someone. A wonderful plant.
The handsome man, fragrant with essential oils, is myrtle. Such a plant cannot be easy to care for. Regime, temperature and irrigation, lighting, pruning - you can't do without it. I must honestly say: you will have to bother around the paradise tree, but you will also receive exclusively paradise pleasure. As a reward for your efforts, your myrtle will turn green in the form of a fancy bonsai tree, or it will bloom to the envy of less patient and caring growers. And yet this handsome man is a doctor anywhere. Where he thrives, they do not get colds and hardly fight, such is his energy. After all, myrtle is a family tree of happiness.