Apple tree: origin and groups of varieties

The apple tree is the queen of fruit trees in Russia. Part 1

In a house where apples are regularly eaten, the doctor has nothing to do

From the Garden of Eden to the present day

Among the fruit species cultivated in our country, the first place rightfully belongs to apple tree... It can be found both in the southernmost regions and on the distant outskirts of the North, where, according to the figurative expression of the poet P. Komarov, "mercury is dead, and the apple tree is blooming."

The apple tree is one of the oldest species, introduced into culture by man over 4 thousand years ago. In the Garden of Eden, she became the "tree of life" and "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," on which the most beautiful fruits grew, one of which Eve bit and then offered it to Adam. The apple became a participant and a prize of the first beauty contest in the world, to which three goddesses - Hera, Athena and Aphrodite - stretched out their hands, wishing to possess it, because the word "Most Beautiful" was inscribed on it. But from the "apple of discord" over time it turned into the number one fruit in Europe. So it remains to this day.

Apple-tree varieties Aport

It is believed that the apple tree culture began to spread throughout Europe from Greece. Four centuries BC, Theophrastus wrote the first essay on fruit growing, in which he gave an overview of the then widespread cultures. Two centuries later, Roman sources describe 36 varieties of apple trees. From the Greeks and Romans, the culture of the apple tree passed to Western European countries. In the Middle Ages, fruit trees, including the apple tree, were grown mainly in monasteries.

At the beginning of the 17th century, already 60 varieties of it were described. Some of them are still cultivated. In the second half of the 18th century, the first Russian pomologist ("pomology" is the science of varieties) A.T. Bolotov has already described 600 varieties of apple trees that were then cultivated in the Tula province.

Currently, the world assortment of apple trees has more than 16 thousand varieties, differing in adaptability to a variety of natural conditions. This explains such a wide spread of this culture.

Origin of varieties

Apple variety Renet

For an apple tree, the lifespan of the variety is determined at 300 years. But many varieties stop multiplying much earlier than this, and then they "die". There are known long-lived varieties that have come to us from time immemorial. So, the winter gold variety Parmen has been in cultivation for about 800 years, and it does not degenerate. Moreover, frost-resistant clones were found among the offspring of this non-frost-resistant variety. The Aport variety was known even in Kievan Rus, i.e. it is over 900 years old. And the Calvil white variety has been cultivated for more than 2000 years, it was known back in the days of Ancient Rome.

Intensive selection work is underway all over the world to develop new, better varieties. But no one has yet managed to get the perfect variety in all respects.

Various types of apple trees were used to create varieties. There are more than 30 of the latter, many of them grow in our country. For example, in the European part of Russia, a wild forest apple tree with fruits the size of a walnut is widespread. It is believed that many Central Russian varieties (Grushovka Moskovskaya, Antonovka ordinary, Volga Anises) are derivatives of this species.

Siberian apple tree

The ancestor of a number of southern varieties was the wild Caucasian apple tree. By crossing the most winter-hardy Siberian apple tree in the world, often called simply Siberian apple, with large-fruited varieties, apple varieties were obtained for the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. They are usually called ranetki or semi-cultured.

Many gardeners know the type of apple tree, called the Chinese apple tree (slurry apple tree), which originated from the Siberian apple tree when the latter was crossed with cultivated varieties. The most important feature of the Chinese is its high winter hardiness and early onset of fruiting. There are many varieties of Chinese. This type of apple tree was highly appreciated by I.V. Michurin. On its basis, he developed the famous winter variety Pepin saffron.

Decorative features of culture

Apple tree of Nedzvetsky

The apple tree is a very ornamental plant. At the time of its flowering, any apple orchard is amazingly beautiful ("Apple trees in bloom - what a miracle" - was stated in the once very popular song). In many countries, there are even celebrations of the blossoming apple tree. There are special varieties and varieties of ornamental apple trees. Their flowers are most often dark pink or scarlet, and their number is five times more than that of ordinary apple trees.

Flowers are the most important, but not the only attribute of decorative apple trees. Many of them attract attention with their red foliage. Their fruits are also a special decorative detail. They can be the size of blueberries or larger, and are often bright red, sometimes orange or yellow. In autumn, when foliage falls from the trees, the fruits remain on the branches for a long time, sometimes for most of the winter, until the birds peck them.

Among the ornamental species, for example, is the Nedzvetsky apple tree, found at one time in Central Asia and used by IV Michurin for crossing with a number of cultivated varieties. This apple tree is characterized by the fact that the leaves, shoots, flowers, fruits are colored reddish-brown. The Siberian apple tree already mentioned is also very decorative (synonym - berry apple tree). Early into fruiting, it produces fruits weighing 1-2 grams, reminiscent of cherries. Among cherry Siberians, there are forms with red and yellow fruits (amber).

As for the decorativeness of plants, the apple tree is a very plastic species, suitable for creating a wide variety of forms - cordons, palmettes, pyramids, vases, arches, etc. Therefore, it has long been widely used in shaped fruit growing.

In Western Europe, in addition to dessert varieties, special cider varieties are also cultivated. Their fruits are small, sour, tart and not suitable for fresh consumption. Juice is squeezed out of them, which after fermentation is called cider. This drink with a low alcohol content is very popular in France, Switzerland, parts of England and Germany.

Varieties differ in size, shape, color, taste and aroma of fruits, yield, keeping quality, winter hardiness and many other characteristics.

The weight of the smallest apple variety is about 2 g, the largest apple - more than 900 g. As for the shape of the fruit, the following groups of varieties are distinguished: reneti, pepin, calvili, parmena.

Renethi - these are the so-called royal apples (from reine - queen), the fruits are distinguished by the correct rounded shape and clearly visible numerous subcutaneous points. They taste great (suitable for an exquisite dessert).

Kalvili got their name from the ribbed shape of the fruit and the resemblance to the folds of Calvinist hats. They have a delicate, aromatic pulp of strawberry or raspberry flavor and a greasy skin to the touch.

Parmen - varieties with rounded truncated and elongated fruits with dense pulp, well-pronounced spice and aroma. Mostly striped.

The color of the fruits depends on the variety and the degree of crown light (on the same tree, fruits formed on well-lit branches can have a very intense cover color, and those "hiding" in the shade are completely devoid of it).

Ripening dates and properties of fruits

Apple variety Parmen

The varieties differ in terms of ripening (summer, autumn, winter) and, accordingly, in keeping quality. By choosing the right varieties, the gardener can provide himself with apples for the whole year. Certain varieties can be stored until next year's harvest. In some places there is a custom of "meeting" apples. From the garden they bring to the house the fruits that have just been plucked from the branch, and from the basement - last year's. This meeting of fruits symbolizes the high art of the gardener who managed to grow so many fruits that they were enough from one harvest to the next.

Plants enter fruiting depending on the variety and type of rootstock. Varieties that begin to bear fruit in the 3-5th year of life are called early-fruiting, in the 6-8th year - medium-fruited. On the 9-14th year - late-fruited. Small-fruited varieties usually bear fruit earlier than large-fruited ones.

It is possible to accelerate the onset of fruiting of all varieties by growing them on low-growing rootstocks. Some apple varieties grafted onto a dwarf rootstock begin to bear fruit at the age of one.

Most varieties are cross-pollinated, they set fruits only when pollinated with pollen from other varieties.

The taste of apples depends on many factors: the variety, the area of ​​cultivation, the weather conditions of the growing season, agricultural technology, the age of the tree, the type of rootstock, and others.

As for the variety, many people know the proverb "there is no comrade in taste and color." The apple tree, thanks to its huge assortment, can "offer" to the consumer fruits with different pulp density and a wide variety of taste. She has sweet, and sour, and sweet and sour, and unleavened (completely devoid of acid) fruits.

Read the second part of the article: Features of apple varieties with different ripening periods →

V. Stepanychev,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Origin and regionalization

"Legend" was developed by the specialists of VSTISP under the guidance of Professor V. V. Kichina in 1982 as a result of crossing the legendary Japanese "Fuji" and the domestic "Brusnichny". The variety has successfully passed the state test, entered breeding since 1999 and relatively recently, in 2008, was officially included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.

In the photo - apple trees "Fuji" (left) and "Brusnichnoe" (right), used for intervarietal hybridization

Domestic breeders managed to create a new hybrid, saving it from the disadvantages inherent in parent plants. The problems with the original forms are that only small fruits ripen in "Lingonberry", a natural dwarf, and "Fuji" does not tolerate cold weather well. In contrast to them, the Legend apple variety is fully adapted to the climatic conditions of the Central region and brings harvests of large apples.

Sunflower hybrids

A hybrid is a consequence of controlled crossing of varieties with each other or with wild-growing sunflowers, in order to obtain a new breeding material that would meet the requirements of different climatic zones, give high yields with maximum oil content, be resistant to various diseases, parasites, etc.

The emergence of hybrids was due to the fact that in the middle of the twentieth century, the range of sunflower was monotonous and, as a result, more susceptible to diseases and dependent on weather conditions due to genetic uniformity.

The seeds of hybrids are not sowing material, unlike oil-bearing and confectionery varietal species, since the second reproduction completely loses the characteristics inherent in the first.


Drought-resistant, medium-yielding (18-27 c / ha), mid-season (115-120 days) species, bred from high-quality sunflower VNIIMK 100 by Kharkov scientists. Differs in unpretentiousness during the period of growth before the formation of a basket, during ripening it needs nitrogen fertilizers. The recommended growing region is Central Black Earth.

The variety is popular due to the low price of seed, resistance to shedding and the inclination of the basket to the ground, which prevents damage to the crop by birds. It has a high oil content (up to 52%).

Achenes are medium in size, narrow, black, with barely noticeable gray stripes along the edges. Stem height 170-180 cm. The seed basket is small (16-20 cm in diameter), slightly convex, inclined downward. The seeding rate is 45-50 thousand per hectare.

Forward is susceptible to infection with new broomrape subspecies, is quite resistant to powdery mildew and rot.


Sunflower of low (medium) growth, has an average drought resistance, the yield is about 15-19 c / ha, with a sufficient level of moisture can reach 35 c / ha. Oliver is a medium early (108-112 days) hybrid. It is famous for its high content of oleic acid, which is widely used in industry.

Recommended growing regions - Nizhnevolzhsky, North Caucasian.

Seeds are medium in size, ovoid, black in color, with gray stripes along the edge. Oil content - about 49%. The variety is moderately resistant to lodging. Plant height 160-170 cm. Small seed basket (18-22 cm in diameter), convex, inclined downward. The seeding rate is 45-50 thousand per hectare.

Oliver has a strong immunity to rust, rot, phomopsis, septoria, easily copes with broomrape.


Mid-season (110-115 days) hybrid of Serbian selection, bred according to the "Clear Field" principle. Productivity - 21-24 kg / ha. Resistant to high air temperatures and drought, has a strong stem, which makes it less vulnerable in strong winds.

The recommended growing regions are Central Black Earth, North Caucasian, Nizhnevolzhsky.

Seeds are wide, oblong, black with gray stripes along the edge. Oil content 44%. Plant height 170-180 cm. The seed basket is thin, convex, slightly inclined downward, small in size (19-22 cm in diameter). The seeding rate is 55-60 thousand per hectare.

Rimisol is not resistant to phomopsis, rust, broomrape. The originator claims that the hybrid is resistant to herbicides of the imidazolinone group.


A new sunflower hybrid bred in 2019 in Russia with the aim of getting an early ripening (90-100 days) specimen. Resistant to drought and mildew and phomopsis infestations.

The union is distinguished by high oil content (up to 50%) and good yield (up to 50 c / ha), according to the originator. Seeds are dense, black in color. Tall species (stem height 170-190 cm). The seed basket is medium in size, slightly convex, sloping downward. The seeding rate is 55-60 thousand per hectare.

This sunflower hybrid has been under strain testing since 2019, and at the time of this writing, it has not yet been included in the state register of plants approved for use in Russia.


Mid-season hybrid (112-115 days), bred by French breeders. Possesses good oil content (up to 52%). The average yield is up to 22 c / ha (yields are recorded up to 47 c / ha).

The recommended growing regions are Central Black Earth, North Caucasian, Middle Volga, Lower Volga, West Siberian, Ural.

Seeds are small, dense, oval, black, with slightly pronounced gray stripes along the edges. Plant height - up to 170 cm. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and shedding. The seed basket is medium (20-22 cm in diameter), convex, inclined downward. The seeding rate is 55-60 thousand per hectare.

Wellox is resistant to phomopsis, rust, white rot.


The mid-early hybrid (110-112 days), bred by Kharkov breeders, is resistant to both cold and extreme heat and drought, is characterized by rapid growth, which is a plus for hot, arid regions. The recommended growing region is Central Black Earth.

The average oil content is 45%. Productivity, depending on the availability of irrigation, ranges from 30 to 47 kg / ha. There is a risk of stems lodging, therefore reusable nitrogen fertilization is not recommended.

Seeds are medium in size, dense, wide, oval in shape, black with stripes along the edges. Plant height 175-180 cm. The seed basket is medium in size (18-24 cm in diameter), convex, inclined downward. The seeding rate is 50-60 thousand per hectare.

Jason is resistant to broomrape, root rot, rust.


An early ripe hybrid (100-108 days), bred for cultivation in arid steppe conditions by Swiss breeders. The recommended growing region is Nizhnevolzhsky.

It is popular for its good yields without much intervention, since this hybrid does not require constant fertilization, unlike other oilseed species, and does not need abundant irrigation. Average yield - 22 kg / ha, oil content - 51%.

Seeds are medium in size, narrow, ovoid, black, with bright gray stripes along the edges. Plant height 150-160 cm. The seed basket is small (20-24 cm in diameter), slightly convex, inclined downward. The seeding rate is 40-50 thousand per hectare.

The hybrid is resistant to broomrape, but has minimal immunity to various fungi, therefore, it is advisable to treat the soil with fungicides before sowing.

NK Condi

Mid-ripening (about 115 days), high-oil (50-54%), high-yielding (30-43 kg / ha) hybrid, bred by Swiss breeders.

The recommended growing regions are Central Black Earth, North Caucasian, Middle Volga, Nizhnevolzhsky.

Seeds are elongated, oval, black, with slight pubescence and gray stripes. Plant height 165-170 cm. The seed basket is large, convex, slightly inclined downward. The seeding rate is 45-50 thousand per hectare.

This hybrid is susceptible to attack by aggressive races of broomrape, resistant to phomopsis, phomosis and white rot.


A hybrid developed by Ukrainian and Hungarian breeders. It is mid-season (112-116 days), has high resistance to drought and lodging, yield potential up to 50 kg / ha, oil content up to 52%.

The recommended growing regions are Central Black Earth, North Caucasian, Middle Volga, Nizhnevolzhsky.

The seeds are black, large, which makes them look like confectionery varieties. Plant height 170-190 cm. Seed basket of medium size (22-23 cm in diameter), convex, inclined downward. Seeding rate - 60-70 thousand per 1 ha.

Odysseus is resistant to diseases: rot, as well as to most broomrape races.

Having decided on the variety, you need to carry out processing, seed treatment. Compliance with this measure is the key to a high yield and a decent profit for the farmer.


Apple saved - young variety.

Its advantages:

  • Increased immunity,
  • Early maturity,
  • Frost resistance,
  • High stable yield,
  • Wonderful fruits.

In just a few years won the recognition of gardeners and lovers of delicious fruit.

There is no doubt that a little time will pass and Yablochny Spas will decorate many gardens with elegant trees and become famous for record harvests.

Apple tree "Apple Spas": variety description, photos and reviews

Yablochny Spas is an apple tree that is proudly considered one of the achievements of modern domestic breeding. This summer variety has a whole range of improved properties, combining resistance to extreme weather conditions and diseases, self-fertility, early ripening, large size and marketability of apples. It appeared relatively recently, but has already been able to earn high marks from gardeners in Central Russia and other post-Soviet countries.

The variety is named in honor of the great church holiday of the Transfiguration of the Lord, popularly called the Savior Apple, on the eve of which beautiful ruddy apples reach their ripeness

We suggest that you familiarize yourself with a detailed description of the Apple Spas apple variety and gardeners' reviews about it. Let's start our acquaintance with the main characteristics shown in the table:

Parameter Characteristic
Culture Apple tree (Malus domestica Borch.)
Variety "Apple Spas"
Tree height Tall - up to 10-14 m, recommended - 6-7 m
Early maturity High - 3-4 years after planting
Removable (technical) maturity dates 1-2-nd decade of August - early September (depending on the region of cultivation)
Period of consumption / shelf life of fruits Summer apples are stored for 1-1.5 months (until the end of September)
Fruiting type Mixed
Productivity of one tree Young (7-8 years old) - 45-50 kg (146 kg / ha), increases with age
Size and weight of fruits Large, on average 211-216 g
Shape and color The apples are of medium one-dimensionality, rounded-elongated, slightly sloping, with pronounced ribbing. The peel is smooth, slightly oily to the touch, dull. The main color is from greenish to golden, the integumentary color is in the form of a small blush with intermittent vertical strokes of a crimson-red color
Fruit pulp Moderately firm, juicy crunchy, fine-grained. Has a greenish tint and a mild aroma
Tasting assessment (taste) 4.3 points (out of 5) - sweet taste with pleasant sourness
Purpose of fruits Dining room (universal)
Sustainability High winter hardiness (tolerates a drop in temperature to -20 ℃ well, with more severe frosts, a slight reversible damage to branches and buds occurs) immunity to scab, resistance to most common diseases
Life span Up to 70 years old
Year of inclusion in the State Register of the Russian Federation 2009
Recommended growing regions Tsentralny (3), Tsentralno-Chernozemny (5)
Originators Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops" (Oryol Region), Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "North Caucasian Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Viticulture, Winemaking" (Krasnodar)

Separation of the sexes and the Linnaean System [edit | edit code]

Quantitative and qualitative accounting of the sexual characteristics of plants, including taking into account the peculiarities of the separation of sexes, formed the basis of the so-called Linnaeus System - the sexual classification system of plants proposed by the Swedish scientist Karl Linnaeus (1707-1778) and largely based on the teachings of the German botanist Rudolf Camerius (1665 -1721). Linnaeus' system was first published in the work "The System of Nature" (1735), in the second half of the XVIII century it became almost universally recognized, was used until the middle of the XIX century. Monoecious plants formed the XXI class of this System, dioecious plants - XXII class, multihoming - XXIII class [2].

This species grows in forests, on forest edges, among bushes, along the banks of fresh water bodies and on roadsides. In the south, it develops territories up to 1800 m above sea level, in the north - no higher than 550 m.

The apple tree is a spreading shrub or tree up to 10 m high. The trunk up to 40 cm in diameter and knotty branches are covered with dark brown shiny bark. The leaves are alternate, long-petiolate, simple, dark green, with a wide ovoid plate, up to 8 cm long. Shoots are of two types: normal vegetative and shortened fruiting with very close internodes.

●. The plant is monoecious, it combines both sexes in a single flower. Regular bisexual flowers up to 4 cm in diameter and pale pink corolla form corymbose inflorescences. The fruit is juicy - an apple up to 5 cm in diameter, round or oblong, yellow-green with red. Seeds are small, smooth, brown, drop-shaped. ...

In the language of flowers, an apple tree means the birth of love.

There are morphological and biological differences in the structure of the fruit organs of pome and stone fruit crops. In all fruit formations of pome crops, the apical bud is fruit, in stone fruit it is vegetative. Inside each flower bud of apple, pear, quince are the rudiments of flowers and leaves. Fruits develop from flowers, and leaf rudiments develop into a replacement shoot. Such buds combine two functions - fruiting and vegetative growth. Therefore, they are called mixed or complex. In stone fruit crops, some buds on the shoot are flowering, others are vegetative. Inside each flower bud are the rudiments of only flowers, and in the vegetative bud - the rudiments of leaves. Such kidneys are, as it were, specialized, they are often called simple. From some buds, only fruits develop (from the lateral ones), from others (apical) the continuation shoot develops.
Bouquet twigs are shortened shoots, on which flower buds are located on the side at a close distance, and at the top there is a vegetative bud. All buds are collected in a miniature bouquet, hence the name. Cherry has very short bouquet branches (3-5 cm), peach is slightly larger than apricot branches. In cherry, bouquet twigs reach 7-8 cm. The lifespan of bouquet twigs is not the same: in cherry - two to three years, in apricot - three to four, in sweet cherry - five to six years, and sometimes even more.

Bouquet twigs of stone fruit
1 - cherries 2 - cherries 3 - plums 2 - apricot 5 - peach

Spurs are shortened shoots from 1 to 8-10 cm long. In their structure, they resemble bouquet twigs. In some years, there is a deviation from the general patterns of the formation of mixed buds in pome crops and simple buds in stone fruits. Under the influence of external conditions and internal causes, individual buds in an apple tree develop as simple ones, like a cherry, and buds in a cherry develop like complex ones, like an apple tree.
The location of the buds on the spur is the same as on the bouquet twig - flower buds are located on the side of the shoot, and vegetative buds on the top. The lateral buds of a spur are smaller and thinner than those of a bouquet twig, they are not so close together and do not look like a bouquet. In some types of plums, a thorn forms at the very top of the spur along with the vegetative bud. It is slightly protruding to the side and resembles a miniature spur. Plum spurs are somewhat similar in size to an apple spear, but differ from them in the location of the buds. In the spear, the apical bud is fruiting, the lateral buds are vegetative, in the spur it is vice versa.
In most varieties of stone fruit crops, fruits develop on shortened shoots - bouquet twigs and spurs, but they are not the only fruiting organs. For example, cherries and plums also develop fruits on mixed fruit shoots.
Mixed shoots are small overgrowing twigs up to 12-15 cm long. Mixed shoots in their length resemble fruit twigs of an apple tree, but differ from them in the structure and location of the buds. At the twig, the apical bud is fruiting, all the lateral ones are vegetative. In a mixed shoot of stone fruit crops, the apical bud is vegetative, and the lateral buds are both flowering and vegetative. They alternate with each other throughout the escape.
Fruit shoots are often found in peach, differ in that all their buds are fruit. Replacing vegetative buds do not develop, and therefore, after fruiting, such shoots die off.
The figure shows all types of fruit formations in cherries (bouquet twig, fruit and mixed shoots) and plums (spurs, fruit and mixed shoots).

Different types of fruit formations of cherry (I) and plum (II)
1 - bouquet twigs 2 - fruit shoot 3 - mixed shoot

Leaves - the most important organs of the fruit tree. In the axils of the leaves, new buds are laid annually. New leaves, shoots, flowers, fruits emerge from them! The leaves feed the aerial part and the root system of the tree. They take the most active part in the development of the whole organism and new organs.
A plant is a leaf. The most important biological process takes place in the leaves - photosynthesis, as a result of which carbohydrates and other organic compounds are formed. Through the leaves transpiration and gas exchange in the plant is carried out, which in turn increases the winter hardiness and drought resistance of the tree due to the activity of the leaves, reserves of nutrients are deposited, etc.
According to the morphological structure, the leaves of fruit and berry plants are divided into simple and complex. Simple leaves have one leaf blade. A composite leaf consists of several plates and can be triple pinnate, paripinnate, finger-complex, etc.
In most fruit tree species, the leaves are arranged in a spiral. For every two full revolutions of the spiral, five leaves are placed; the sixth leaf is above the first, the seventh is above the second, the eighth is above the third, etc. In this case, the leaf arrangement is designated by the fraction 2/5. There may be such leaf arrangements: 1/2, 1/3, 3/8, 4/11, 5/13, etc. It happens that in the lower part of the shoot one leaf arrangement cycle, and in the upper part - another.
By the number of leaves in the crown, trees are distinguished strongly, medium and slightly leafy. The largest leaves have fatty and basal shoots. On annual vegetative growths, the leaves are larger than on fruit formations. On young trees, the leaves are larger than on fruit-bearing ones. Due to the low level of agricultural technology, the growth and size of leaves are reduced. Depending on the external conditions and the nutrition of the tree, the number of stomata on the leaves and the nerve of the leaf (network of veins) also change.

Flowers and inflorescences... The flower is a modified, very shortened shoot of the generative
type. The collection of flowers held by a simple or branched axis is called an inflorescence.
The genitals are located in flowers in different ways. In some breeds, flowers are bisexual, in others, unisexual or dioecious. Bisexual flowers have stamens (male organs) and pistils (female organs). Dissolved flowers have either stamens (staminate) or pistils (pistillate).
Plants are also distinguished by the arrangement of flowers on them. Among fruit breeds there are monoecious dioecious, dioecious dioecious and monoecious bisexual. In monoecious dioecious, on the same tree there are male and female flowers; in dioecious dioecious, on some trees there are only male flowers, on others - only female flowers.
Most of the fruit species are monoecious - apple, pear, cherry, plum, sweet cherry, apricot, peach, currant, gooseberry and others. Such flowers are pollinated mainly by insects and are called entomophilous.
Diocese plants include walnuts, hazelnuts, edible chestnuts, real pistachio, pecans. These plants are wind-pollinated and are called anemophilous. Some types of strawberries, figs, actinidia, sea buckthorn belong to dioecious breeds.
There is also a transitional group of plants with different types of flowers. So, in the mulberry, there are also monoecious specimens - with male and female flowers, and dioecious ones, on which there are either male or female flowers. In Japanese persimmon, on the same plant there are most female flowers and a small part of male flowers in other persimmon plants, on the contrary, male flowers prevail.
Most bisexual flowers have equally well developed stamens and pistils. But there are flowers with underdeveloped stamens or pistils. Flowers with underdeveloped stamens are called functionally feminine, with underdeveloped pistils - functionally masculine. A different number of flowers develops from one flower bud: peach, apricot, almond, quince - 1 flower each, apple - from 3 to 8 flowers, but most cultivars - 5 flowers each. A pear develops from 3 to 11 flowers from one bud. 2-3 flowers develop buds of plum, walnut, hazelnut.
Flowers differ in the number of carpels that make up the pistil. Cherries, plums, sweet cherries, apricots have one carpel, an apple tree has two to five, a pear has five, a currant has two to four, a strawberry, a raspberry has several dozen. Fruits develop according to the number of fertilized carpels.
The number of nests in the ovary is also associated with the structure of flowers and fertilization: in stone fruit - one nest, in apple and pear - two, in chestnut - three - six, in citrus - many.
By the type of branching, inflorescences are divided into monopodial and sympodial.
Monopodial inflorescences are distinguished by the long growth of the central axis and the gradual blooming of flowers from bottom to top. Sympodial inflorescences have several axes and orders of branching, Monopodial inflorescences are divided into simple and complex. The simple ones include a brush, a shield, an earring, an umbrella. To complex - a complex brush, a complex shield. Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, bird cherry, Magaleb cherry have a brush. Pear, mountain ash, hawthorn have a shield. The bottom flower is the first to bloom in the inflorescence. Apple, cherry, sweet cherry have an umbrella. Earring - in walnuts, hazelnuts, hazelnuts, pecans, edible chestnuts. It contains only male flowers.After flowering, the earring falls off, and the fruits develop from fertilized female flowers.

Fruit are formed as a result of fertilization from one or more flowers. Some fruits can develop without fertilization - parthenocarpic, or seedless (some varieties of pears, tangerines, oranges, and others).
If only one pistil took part in the formation of the fetus, the fetus is called simple. The fruit, formed by several pistils, is called compound or composite (raspberry, strawberry). Fruits formed from a whole inflorescence are called compound fruits (figs, mulberries). In some plants, fruits develop only from the ovary of a flower (stone fruit), in others, in addition to the ovary, the receptacle and the calyx (apple, pear) take part in the development of the fruit.
The constituent parts of the fetus are exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp.

Fruit structure
1 - exocarp 2 - mesocarp - a) external pulp, b) internal pulp, c) border between external and internal pulp 3 - endocarp 4 - vessels 1 - seed 6 - overgrown receptacle 7 - fruit-nuts 8 - stony cells

The exocarp is the outer shell of the fetus. It can be pubescent or non-pubescent, soft or leathery, lignified and non-lignified, thin or thick, colored or uncolored. So, the exocarp in peach is pubescent, in cherry it is not pubescent, in gooseberry it is leathery, in hazel it is woody, in citrus it is thick and soft.
Mesocarp can be edible - in an apple, pear, inedible - in a nut, juicy - in grapes, dry - in hazel, single-layer - in stone fruit, two-layer - in pome fruit.
Endocarp in stone fruits is a hard shell, in apples - parchment-like plates of the seed chamber, in pears - stony cells, etc.
By their structure, the fruits are divided into false, drupes, berries, nuts, citrus fruits, parthenocarpic. The fruits of the apple, pear, and quince belong to the false ones. They develop from fertilized carpels and pericarp.
The figure shows the structure of the apple tree, which shows an overgrown receptacle, calyx lobes, remnants of stamens and pistil, inner pulp - endocarp, middle pulp - mesocarp, external pulp - mesocarp, core and seeds.

Apple structure
1 - seminal chamber 2 - vessel of the ovule 3 - fibrous vascular bundle of the skin 4 - vascular fibrous ray of sepals 5 - heart 6 - one of the main vascular fibrous bundles feeding the outer pulp of the apple 7 - one of the main vascular fibrous bundles of the carpel

The fruits formed from one fertilized carpel are called drupes. Their pulp develops without the participation of other parts of the flower. The exocarp of the drupes is soft, the mesocarp is juicy, and the endocarp is hard. The hard shell, or shell, of the seed that protects the seed belongs to the pericarp, not the seed. Berries include fruits with a juicy pericarp - currants, cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries, grapes and others. Berries also include multi-member or prefabricated fruits - strawberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries. Berry-like fruits include lemon, tangerine, orange. These fruits have a thick outer shell - the endocarp, followed by the spongy mesocarp, inside which there is an edible endocarp with and without seeds.

Thus, in practical fruit growing, the biological and industrial classification of fruit and berry crops is generally accepted, according to which they are divided into the following groups: pome fruits, stone fruits, berry, walnut, subtropical - heterogeneous and citrus, tropical.

In addition, they are divided into industrial crops, promising crops and wild fruit breeds.

List of used literature

1. Fruit growing / Ed. V.A. Kolesnikov. - M .: Kolos, 1979 .-- 415 p. 2. Yakushev V.I., Shevchenko V.V. Fruit growing with the basics of ornamental gardening. - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - M .: Agropromizdat, 1987 .-- 336 p. 3. Vegetable growing and fruit growing / E.I. Glebova, A.I. Voronin, N.I. Kalashnikov and others - L .: Kolos, Leningrad branch, 1978 .-- 448 p. 4. Kurennoy N.M., Koltunov V.F., Cherepakhin V.I. Fruit growing. - 1st ed. - M .: Agropromizdat, 1985 .-- 399 p. 5. Vegetable growing fruit growing / А.S. Simonov, V.K. Rodionov, Yu.V. Krysanov et al., Ed. A.S. Simonov. - M .: Agropromizdat, 1986 .-- 398 p.

Dahlia groups

The name of this beautiful plant comes from the name of the Swedish botanist Dahl. Its homeland is Mexico, whose climate is conducive to lush growth and long flowering. Plants reach a height of 100 cm, and the diameter of the inflorescences can be 20 cm. The underground part consists of several thick, tuberous roots.

Dahlias (in Latin Dahlia) are extremely beautiful, attractive flowers of summer and autumn. Due to their high decorative qualities, these beautiful plants are divided into a huge number of varieties that differ in characteristic features:

  1. petal cut
  2. plant height
  3. inflorescence shape
  4. color of flowers.

There are several thousand varieties of dahlias in the world - Dutch varieties, dwarf varieties, giants and others.

In addition to tall and medium dahlias, dwarf varieties are also popular. Therefore, these amazing flowers are divided into several groups, facilitating their classification and identification.

Considering their shape and appearance, dahlias are divided into 3 main groups:

  1. single
  2. semi-double
  3. terry - the largest group, including decorative semi-cactus, cactus, spherical (ball) and pompom dahlias.

Due to the wide variety of varieties in each group, additional subgroups have been identified that collect plants with a similar flower structure.

A group of solitary dahlias

The group includes plants with flowers consisting of a single vortex of petals and filled with small tubular flowers inside. These are usually fairly short, bushy plants. They do not have large, attractive flowers like other groups, so they are rarely seen in gardens.

  • "Louise" - Luiza
  • "Yellow Hammer" - Yellow Hammer
  • "Northwest Space" - Northwest Cosmos.

Group of semi-double varieties

Semi-double varieties are more often cultivated. Among them there are several types of plants:

  1. with double flowers (peony) - consist of 2-3 rows of petals, but with tubular flowers visible inside (for example, cultivar "Fascination")
  2. anemone - the center of the flower is filled with rather large petals (for example, varieties "Rosita", "Toto", "Comet")
  3. collar - have an additional round of middle petals (for example, "Hartenas") between large ligulate leaves and smaller tubular ones.

Group of terry dahlias

Terry dahlias are the largest, frequently grown group and are characterized by extremely attractive flowers.

Among them are the most decorative varieties with large flowers, completely filled with tiled petals, for example:

  • "Arabian night"
  • "Edinburgh"
  • "Hawaii"
  • "Duet".

No less attractive are semi-cactus and cactus dahlias, whose flowers have petals with curved and pointed ends, for example:

  • "Princess Park"
  • "Firebird"
  • "Garden Party"
  • "Gene Lombaert"

Giant dahlias look spectacular with spherical, rather large, slightly flattened or spherical flowers, completely filled with curved tongue petals, for example, "Nivea".

Pompon dahlias are very beautiful and spectacular.

Their flowers are similar to spherical, but slightly smaller, slightly flattened, with more compressed petals, for example, varieties:

  • "Apple blossom"
  • "White Aster"
  • "Bella".

Watch the video: Apple Varieties

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